The Top 10 Cannabis Studies of 2018

It’s that time again – here is our sixth annual Top Cannabis Studies of the Year list. 

Continuing the trend of the past several years, 2018 provided us with a massive amount of peer-reviewed research demonstrating the wide-ranging benefits of cannabis and the liberation of laws surrounding it. With that in mind, this year was as big a challenge as ever to narrow these studies down to the top 10, but after much thought and debate that’s what we’ve done!

Below is our list of the 10 most important cannabis studies of the year (in no particular order):


Study: Medical Cannabis Legalization Associated with Reduced Violent Crimes in States Bordering Mexico

Study: Cannabinoid Receptors a Promising Target for the Treatment of Suicidal Behavior

Study: Cannabinoids May Inhibit Tumor Growth in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Study: CBD Reduces Cocaine Intake

Study: Marijuana Legalization Associated With Reduction in Crime, Drug and Alcohol Use

Study: Marijuana Use Associated With Reduced Mortality Following Orthopedic Surgery

Study: Legalizing Medical Marijuana Associated with a 33.7% Reduction in Workplace Fatalities Among Those Aged 25 to 44

Study: Long-Term Marijuana Use Doesn’t Increase Risk for Adverse Lung Function, May Reduce Emphysema Risk

Study: CBD Reduces Airway Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Allergic Asthma.

Study: Cannabis May Help Control Hospital and Community-Acquired MRSA

Honorable mentions:


Study: Marijuana Crackdowns Are a Form of Structural Violence, Have Negative Effects on Health, Social and Economic Well-Being

New Study Finds Cannabis Use Does Not Harm Human Fertility

Study: Cannabis Seeds and Sprouts Exert Beneficial Effects on Human Cells

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Four Recreational Cannabis Stores Open in Massachusetts

Update: Two years after Massachusetts voters approved Question 4 legalizing the recreational use and sale of marijuana, two stores opened on Nov. 20Cultivate in Leicester and New England Treatment Access (NETA) in Northampton. At Cultivate, pot patrons paid from $19 to $420 for flower products.

In Northampton, Mayor David Narcewicz was first on line at NETA; he purchased an infused chocolate bar for $20. “It’s just a historic moment for the commonwealth and for the city,” he crowed. “I’m glad to be a part of it.”

Update: Two more stores have opened since then: Alternative Therapies Group (ATG) in Salem and Veralife in Wareham.

Back in June, the Massachusetts’ Cannabis Control Commission (CCC), tasked by the legislature and governor to draft and implement the establishment of a retail cannabis industry, publicly indicated that their self-directed date to open non-medical cannabis retail outlets, July 1, would not be realized.

The Commission’s intent was to avoid mistake-laden employee background checks, consumer chaos and confusion and product inventory problems that occurred in the six previous states that created commercial cannabis markets (Colorado, Washington, …

Oregon Approves Medical Marijuana Deliveries, Increases Purchase Limits

The Oregon Liquor Control Commission has approved several changes to the state’s medical marijuana program.

The commission, which oversees Oregon’s medical marijuana law, has given approval to a change in the state’s law that allows the medicine to be delivered to patients or their caregiver. The commission also passed an increase in the amount of medical marijuana a patient can purchase to eight ounces in a single day and up to 32 ounces in a single month.

In addition, the commission voted to allow wholesale license holders to provide retailers with samples.

The change in law allowing medical marijuana to be delivered unfortunately doesn’t apply to recreational marijuana.

Oregon legalized medical marijuana in 1998 through the initiative process, with 54% voting in favor. In 2014, the state legalized marijuana for all purposes.

The new  medical marijuana rules go into effect on December 29, 2019.

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How To Clean A Grinder In 5 Easy Steps | Honest Marijuana

Part of a grinder

Don’t let your lack of knowledge about how to clean a grinder be a deterrent to maintaining your cannabis equipment. There are plenty of good reasons to keep your grinder clean, and it’s really not that difficult when you get the hang of it.

In this article, the experts at Honest Marijuana will show you how to clean a grinder in five easy steps — with no muss and no fuss.

And if a clean tool isn’t motivation enough for you, we’ll show you how to use the leftover plant matter to take your smoke sesh to the next level.

Why You Should Clean Your Grinder

1) Keeps You From Getting Sick

Those nugs of bud we all love were once live plant matter. And even though they’ve been dried and cured, they will eventually start to decompose.

That means bacteria will start to grow on any leftover kief in your grinder. And in case you were absent that day in middle school, bacteria can make you sick. Clean your grinder and stay healthy longer.

2) Ensures The Smooth Operation Of Your Grinder

Part of a grinder

Periodic cleaning ensures that your grinder will work smoothly when you need it most.

Grinding cannabis is a sticky job, and some of that sticky icky will get stuck in your grinder. That can gum up the works and make your grinder not only harder to turn but less efficient to boot.

More effort and less finely-ground grass? No thanks. We’ll clean our grinder, thank you.

3) Helps Extend The Life Of Your Grinder

Entropy is a harsh mistress, that’s for sure. Systems break down. Objects degrade. And the teeth on your grinder get dull. Damn you, entropy!

But you can defy decay by cleaning your grinder regularly. This keeps the teeth sharp and the “turny mechanism” smooth and easy-to-use.

And it really is worth the effort to give the finger to a property of thermodynamics …

Trimming Weed: How To Trim Your Marijuana Plant In 5 Easy Steps

Trimming weed from a jar

Trimming weed may seem like a daunting activity. But take it from the professionals at Honest Marijuana — it’s not as hard as all that. In fact, it’s pretty simple, and we’re going to teach you how.

In this article, we’ll show you the best way to trim your weed for maximum potency. We’ll even tell you how you can use all the stuff you trim off your bud to make edibles, creams, and other fun stuff.

Why Trimming Weed Is Essential

Trimming weed is essential during the harvesting process because it reduces the harshness of the finished product.

Leaves contain more chlorophyll than the flowers (buds), so they will always feel more acidic in your throat when burned. Getting rid of those leaves will make the buds smoother and easier to smoke.

Marijuana leaf

Trimming weed also improves THC concentration. Leaves, by nature, have a lower concentration of trichomes.

If you leave the leaves on the bud, gram-for-gram there will be fewer trichomes and, as a result, less THC in the finished product. That can affect potency, flavor, and the overall experience of burning down.

How To Trim Your Marijuana Plant

Supplies For Trimming Weed

  • Pruning snips
  • Pruning shears
  • Disposable rubber gloves (thin latex medical gloves, not the thick dishwashing gloves)
  • Three trays or cookie sheets (one for the cut branch, one for the trimmings, and one for your finished bud)
  • Rubbing alcohol (for cleaning)
  • Rag (for cleaning)

Trimming Weed In 5 Easy Steps

Before we begin, we’re going to suggest that you leave the pot plant standing for the time being. Cut off one branch at a time so you can get the hang of trimming weed before you go all-in and harvest the whole plant.

1a) Set Up Your Weed-Trimming Area

Give yourself plenty of room when setting up your area for trimming weed. A kitchen table works well in this regard (minus the cat, of course).…

Freedom Leaf’s Top 25 Cannabis Stories of 2018

It was a year filled with surprising cannabis developments in the Trump era. Canada went legal as did two more U.S. states recreationally and three more medically. Jeff Sessions bellowed about marijuana, but was kicked out of the Cabinet like so many others. Among the Midterms winners, many are cannabis supporters. Sen. Mitch McConnell led the Republican flank on marijuana, adding hemp legalization to the Farm Bill, while drug warriors like former House Leader John Boehner dove headfirst into the industry. Stocks climbed, especially in Canada, where deals were made with pharma, tobacco and alcohol giants. CBD was the buzz term of the year – everyone wanted to try the new cannabis cure-all. Several pioneers passed away, reminding us how important it is to remember those who laid the path to legalization.

Here are our top 25 stories of the year:


Marijuana Legalization Initiatives Pass in Michigan, Missouri and Utah; Fails in North Dakota

Big Tobacco Makes Major Move into Canadian Cannabis Market

Jeff Sessions image by Donkey Hotey via Flickr

Jeff and Pete Sessions Get Booted Out of Washington

Oklahoma Legalizes Medical Marijuana, Rescinds Ban on Smoking


Vermont: The First

Thailand Lawmakers Unanimously Legalize Medical Marijuana

Thailand’s interim parliament has voted unanimously to legalize the use of medical cannabis, reports CNN.

Following the vote Lawmaker Somchai Sawangkarn said that the passage of medical marijuana legalization “could be considered as a New Year gift to Thais.” “The amendment (on the Narcotics Bill) was passed the second and third readings today. And will become effective once it is published on the Royal Gazette,” said Sawangkarn.

The National Legislative Assembly approved the change to the law by a vote of 153 to 0, with 13 members abstaining. This makes Thailand the first country in Southeast Asia to legally allow marijuana to be used for medical purposes. As noted by CNN, the region i”s notorious for its hardline approach to drugs and strict penalties for drug-related crimes.”

Thailand now joins a growing list of countries that have legalized marijuana for at least medical purposes, including Canada and Uruguay.

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South Carolina Bill Would Decriminalize Marijuana and Hash Possession

Legislation to decriminalize the possession of marijuana and hash has been prefiled in South Carolina’s Legislature.

South Carolina House Bill 3276 was prefiled by State Representative Ivory Thigpen last week for the upcoming legislative session which starts in January. The measure has been referred to the House Committee on Judiciary. If approved by the committee it would move towards a vote by the full House of Representatives, where passage would sent it to the Senate; passage in the Senate would put it before Governor Henry McMaster for final consideration.

House Bill 3276 would decriminalize, and thus remove the possibility of jail time or a criminal record, for the possession of up to 28 grams (one ounce) of marijuana, and up to 10 grams of hash.  As most, law enforcement would be able to issue a civil infraction similar to a speeding ticket.

In addition, the measure would reduce the penalty for someone’s first offense if caught possessing up to a gram of methamphetamine or cocaine, and would “require completion of a drug treatment of rehabilitation program as part of the sentence”. It would “require the court to place persons on probation who are guilty of a first offense possession of certain controlled substances.

For the full text of House Bill 3276, click here.

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Dr. Ethan Russo: ‘CBD Is Amazingly Therapeutic’

Dr. Ethan Russo: “CBD is an incredibly versatile and safe drug. It’s not a miracle, but it is amazingly therapeutic for a wide variety of conditions.”

An expert in neurology and psychopharmacology who specializes in cannabinoid research, we asked Dr. Ethan Russo to answer the following questions about CBD and THC.

What are the main therapeutic effects of CBD?

CBD has somewhere in the neighborhood of 30 mechanisms of action. Fortunately, all of these seem to be beneficial. The main ones are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-psychotic, anticonvulsant, antibiotic and anti-cancer.

What are the differences between CBD and THC?

In low doses, THC is analgesic, a muscle relaxant, anti-emetic, promotes sleep and is mood elevating. In high doses, it’s intoxicating and produces anxiety, rapid heart rate and even paranoia and orthostatic hypotension. On the other hand, in low-to-moderate doses, CBD is stimulating and anti-inflammatory and reduces anxiety and psychotic symptoms. It lacks THC’s side effects. CBD is an incredibly versatile and safe drug. It’s not a miracle, but it is amazingly therapeutic for a wide variety of conditions.

Is THC bad and CBD good, as some would have us believe?

Hardly. THC is a unique therapeutic agent that does not deserve the hysterical response that it evokes in politicians.

The Top 12 Canadian Pot Stocks (Updated)

These 12 stocks are where canna-investors should place their bets. Each company is a licensed producer (LP) of cannabis in Canada. This article has been updated.

1. Canopy Growth Corp. (CGC:US New York)

Market cap: $9.120 billion

Stock price: $26.44

Owns Ontario-based LP, Tweed. With its $4 billion investment made in August, Constellations Brands, whose stable of alcohol companies includes Corona and Mondavi, now owns 38% of Canopy.

2. Tilray Inc. (TLRY:US NASDAQ)

Market cap: $6.659 billion

Stock price: $72.27

Owns the British Columbia-based LP. On Dec. 20, Belgium-based Anheiser-Busch InBev partnered with Tilray to spend $100 million researching CBD and THC non-alcoholic drinks. Each company will pitch in $50 million. A-B InBev owns Budweiser, Stella Artois, Labatt’s and literally hundreds of other beer brands. On Dec. 18, Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis (they own Sandoz) inked a deal with Tilray to make medical cannabis products available through Novartis’ distribution network in 35 countries. On Sept. 17, it was reported that the DEA will begin to import cannabis from Tilray for research purposes.

3. Aurora Cannabis Inc. (ACB:US New York)

Market cap: $4.798 …

Canadian Company Tilray Makes Deals with Novartis and Anheiser-Busch

It’s a clean sweep. Within the last two weeks, Big Tobacco, Big Pharma and Big Alcohol have all made moves into the Canadian cannabis industry:

• On Dec. 7, Marlboro cigarette maker Altria Group purchased 45% of Toronto-based Cronos Group (NASDAQ: CRON) for $1.8 billion.

• On Dec. 18, Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis (they own Sandoz) inked a deal with British Columbia-based Tilray Inc. to make medical cannabis products available through Novartis’ distribution network in 35 countries.

• On Dec. 20, Belgium-based Anheiser-Busch InBev partnered with Tilray to spend $100 million researching CBD and THC non-alcoholic drinks. Each company will pitch in $50 million. A-B InBev owns Budweiser, Stella Artois, Labatt’s and literally hundreds of other beer brands.

TILRAY CEO BRENDAN KENNEDY: “It’s too early to know how big cannabinoid-based beverages will be, but we think it’s a massive opportunity and it’s something we’re interested in investing aggressively in.”

Previously, Canopy Growth and Hexo Group made deals with alcohol companies Constellation Brands and Molson Coors, respectively. Constellation – which owns Corona, Mondavi and other brands – invested $4 billion in Canopy

President Trump Signs Bill Legalizing Hemp Throughout The U.S.

President Trump has signed the 2018 Farm Bill into law, which includes a provision that legalizes hemp.

The 2018 Farm Bill was passed last week by the House of Representatives by a vote of 369 to 47. The vote came just a day after the Senate approved the same bill 87 to 13. Today, President Trump signed the measure into law, making hemp legal for the first time in decades.

The hemp provision, introduced by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnel, removes hemp from the federal list of controlled substances. This effectively legalizes it throughout the country, allowing farmers to grow it as they can any other agricultural commodity such as corn and soybeans.

According to congressional research, the hemp market consists of over 25,000 various products ranging from textiles to food products. Despite its cultivation being illegal, the United States imports roughly half a billion dollars in hemp each year from other countries.

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Excerpt from Ed Rosenthal’s ‘Beyond Buds’: The Rosin Revolution

Rosin is a concentrated blend of terpenes and cannabinoids extracted using a method sometimes called “rosin tech” (RT). It’s the simplest, least-expensive way to extract concentrate from raw buds or hash for more effective dabbing.

Instead of a chemical process, rosin tech relies on heat and pressure to squeeze cannabinoids and terpenes from the source material. It’s a very fast process: A batch of rosin can be produced in moments and consumed immediately. Another advantage of rosin production is that it poses minimal risk of physical injury.

Rosin is the simplest, least-expensive way to extract concentrate from raw buds or hash for more effective dabbing.

The physical science of rosin is simple: Applying heat melts the terpenes and cannabinoids into a pliable resin. Then it’s squeezed using a press. Some lipids and waxes melt at the same temperatures. Thus, the finished product is generally not as refined as the results of some other methods. The tradeoff is the speed and ease of extraction.

There’s a wide range of tools and equipment that can be used to make rosin. The choice depends mostly on the quantity being pressed. On the hobby level, you can use household items. Industrial processors use pneumatic or hydraulic presses.

Here Are the 5 States Most Likely to Legalize Marijuana Next

10 states have legalized marijuana for recreational purposes. Which state will be the 11th?

Below is a list of the top five states we believe are the most likely to legalize marijuana next, becoming the 11th in the U.S. to do so following Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Massachusetts, Maine, Nevada, California, Vermont and Michigan.

New Jersey

Governor Phillip D. Murphy, elected last year to replace Chris Christie, has made the legalization of marijuana one of his primary goals, keeping with a campaign promise. Last month, by a vote of seven to two and six to one, the Senate Budget and Appropriations Committee and the Assembly Appropriations Committee approved legislation to legalize marijuana. Further discussion on the issues have been put off until next year, but even so there is very good reason to believe that New Jersey will be one of, it not the next state to legalize.

New Hampshire

Earlier this year, by a vote of 207 to 139, New Hampshire’s full House of Representatives approved House Bill 656 which would legalize marijuana for those 21 and older. Legalization faces a much tougher battle in the more conservative Senate, but still – the fact that the House not only passed the measure, but passed it handily, makes New Hampshire a given for this list.

New Mexico

Last year New Mexico’s House Consumer and Public Affairs Committee voted 3 to 1 to approve legislation to legalize marijuana. Unfortunately the measure hasn’t advanced any further, but a legalization bill making it through any legislative committees is rare, and a solid sign that there’s an appetite for reform. According to polling, 61% of voters in the state favor marijuana legalization, with just 34% opposed.


In 2016 Ohio voters rejected an initiative that would have legalized marijuana. However, the proposal’s failure had far more to do with its bad design -creating a monopoly for those behind the effort – …

Boston’s 4Front Ventures Looking Forward to Cannex Merger

4Front Ventures president Kris Krane is also on the NCIA’s board of directors

In a high-profile deal expected to close by February, Boston-based 4Front Ventures will merge with Vancouver-based Cannnex Capital Holdings Inc., which operates under the name Northwest Cannabis Solutions, for $450 million in stock.

Cannex (OTC: CNXXF) agreed to issue stock in a way that gives majority control of the combined company to 4Front, which will become a public company once the stock sells on the Canadian Stock Exchange (CSE). The transaction entails 4Front being granted shares of Cannex that will be issued next year at a rate of 1.75 of 4Front shares for every one share of Cannex. Based on the value of comparable stocks already traded on the CSE, the shares should sell as long as they’re offered at an attractive price.

Cannex shareholders are expected to vote by the end of February on the proposal to issue more stock, marking the close of the transaction.

“The synergies are perfect,” 4Front president and co-founder Kris Krane tells Freedom Leaf. “Cannex will take over cultivation and production—that’s their competency. That’s the hardest part. Our expertise is in retail sales and capital markets. The pieces fit perfectly.”

Oregon Garners Over $11.6 Million in Taxes From Marijuana Sales in October, Setting New Monthly Record

Oregon garnered over $11 million in taxes from the legal sales of marijuana and marijuana products in October.

The $11,609,479 in marijuana taxes Oregon made in October is an over 10% increase from the previous monthly record of $10,114,594, which was set in August. The record before that was set in July (around $9.2). This is all according to data released by the Oregon Department of Revenue.

Of the $11.6 million in taxes Oregon brought in from October marijuana sales, $10,094,972 came from the statewide tax on marijuana; the remaining $1,514,507 came local marijuana taxes. Both numbers are the highest they’ve ever been in an individual month.

The new data from October bring’s the state’s total marijuana tax revenue for 2018 to around $82 million, putting Oregon on track to bring in $100 million by the year’s end.

For a full breakdown of Oregon’s marijuana tax revenue since the start of legal sales in 2016, click here.

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New York Governor Andrew Cuomo Calls for Marijuana to be Legalized

New York Governor Andrew Cuomo today called for marijuana to be legalized in his state as part of a “true justice agenda”.

New York Governor Andrew Cuomo (photo; Reuters).

“Let’s legalize the adult use of recreational marijuana once and for all,” said Cuomo. He said that he plans to push for the measure within 100 days, reports NBC New York. Cuomo didn’t provide a specific timeline for when he believes legalization would become a reality.

Cuomo’s comments marks the first time he’s ever stated support for legalizing marijuana; he shied away from the issue almost entirely during his first two terms (he won reelection last month), and once referred to cannabis as a “gateway drug”. In July he said that the “situation on marijuana is changing”, which was the first indication that he may eventually support legalization as he now says he does.

Cuomo said on Monday that New York has had “two criminal justice systems — one for the wealthy and one for everyone else,” adding that “that’s going to end.”

Following Cuomo’s announcement, New York Civil Liberties Union Executive Director Donna Lieberman expressed support for the measure.

“Time is long past due to do the right thing and undo the horrific laws that criminalized marijuana and marijuana users,” she said.

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NYS Gov. Andrew Cuomo: ‘Let’s Legalize the Adult Use of Recreational Marijuana’

New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo has come a long way, baby. In 2017,  he said, “I support medical marijuana. I don’t support recreational marijuana,” adding that cannabis “leads to other drugs and there’s a lot of truth to proof that that’s true.”

Today, in a speech in at the New York Bar in Manhattan outlining his 2019 agenda for the state, Cuomo declared: “Let’s legalize the adult use of recreational marijuana once and for all.

What accounts for the governor’s stunning change of heart and opinion? Let’s count the ways:

• With Michigan voting to legalize marijuana in November, now 10 states have followed the leads of Colorado and Washington when they changed their pot policy in 2012.

• Border state Massachusetts, which voted to legalize adult use in 2016, just started opening up shops last month. New Yorkers can now cross over to the Bay State for cannabis products; however, it’s illegal to bring them back to the Empire State

• Since the election of Phil Murphy as governor in 2017, the New Jersey legislature has been moving

Here Are the 5 States Most Likely to Legalize Marijuana Next

Washington, Colorado, Oregon, Alaska, Massachusetts, Maine, California and Nevada have all legalized marijuana, and Vermont’s Legislature just approved a bill to join this list. Which state will be #10?

Below is a list (in no particular order) of the top five states we believe are the most likely to legalize marijuana next, becoming the 10th state in the U.S. to do so (which would make 20% of the entire country).

New Hampshire

Just days ago, by a vote of 207 to 139, New Hampshire’s full House of Representatives approved House Bill 656 which would legalize marijuana for those 21 and older. This makes the state an easy choice for this list, and gives it a large head start on most other states. However, its fate in the Senate is far from certain, and passage will be much more challenging. It’s also uncertain if Governor Chris Sununu would allow it to become law. Still, it’s hard to not get the feeling that legalization in New Hampshire isn’t very far away.

New Jersey

Newly elected Governor Phillip D. Murphy has vowed to legalize marijuana within his first 100 days in office. This is in stark contrast to New Jersey’s last governor, Chris Christie, who was staunchly opposed to legalization. Although Governor Murphy may or may not be able to follow through on this promise, it’s all but guaranteed that legalization will soon be a reality in New Jersey.


Michigan is the only state where a marijuana legalization initiative is already on this year’s general election ballot. This gives voters the opportunity to make Michigan the 10th legal marijuana state – that is, of course, unless another state legalizes through their legislature prior to November.


In 2016 Ohio voters rejected an initiative that would have legalized marijuana. However, the proposal’s failure had far more to do with its bad design (creating a monopoly among a few growers) rather than the fact …

Medical Cannabis Use Associated With Reduced Opioid Use In Pain Patients, Finds Study

The use of medical cannabis for at least a month is associated with reduced opioid use in pain patients, according to a new study.

The study, titled Opioid dose reduction and pain control with medical cannabis, was published by the Journal of Clinical Oncology. It was conducted by researchers at the Kymera Independent Physicians medical group.

For the study, “A retrospective cohort was evaluated to understand the pattern of care and QOL [quality of life] outcomes with MC [medical cannabis] use across rural multidisciplinary practices in New Mexico. ” QOL questionnaire included a graded pain scale, and “morphine equivalent (ME) dose was used to estimate changes in opioid dose.” ODR was defined “as any reduction of baseline opioid dose.” A chi-square was performed to evaluate associations.

“A total of 133 patients were identified between Jan 2017- May 2017. (M/F) 65/68; median age of 53 (range 20 – 84)”, states the study. “Nineteen percent (25/133) had a cancer diagnosis. Pain score improved in 80 % of patients with cancer and in 75% (64/89) of non-cancer patients (x2 0.24 p = 0.62).”

Opioid dose reduction (ODR) was achieved in 41% of all patients using medical cannabis. Of these, “63% (34/54) had a 25% ODR and 37% (20/54) had 26% or more ODR (x2 12.8 p = 0.002). In cancer patients, a 25% ODR was achieved in 73% (x2 0.51 p = 0.771).”

Researchers state that “All patients (15/15) using MC and high dose opioid (morphine equivalent ≥ 50 mg/day) had some ODR. Co-adjuvant NSAIDs [nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug] with MC improved pain score in 67% of all cases vs 33% among non-NSAID cohort (x2 10.7 p = 0.001). ODR was achieved in 32% of patients with active depression vs 68% of patients without (x2 0.044 p = 0.83).”

The study concludes by stating that “In this rural cohort, MC use led to ODR in 41% of all patients.”

Click here for more …

The CBD Revolution Is Being Led by Women

Each issue of Freedom Leaf includes an article provided by Women Grow. This article appears in Issue 34.

For several years, I’ve assisted thousands of patients with an alternative form of medicine: cannabis. Through direct feedback and observational studies, patients have indicated that CBD, in particular, provides a significant benefit to mediate certain healthcare needs.

As a scientist who earned her PhD in cellular biology with extensive studies in cancer research, including breast and colon cancer, and evolved into developing a model to understand the mechanism of how prostate cancer metastasizes to bone, I’ve studied and consulted with many patients. When I opened my dispensary, National Holistic Healing Center, in 2015 in Washington, DC, I’d already had 15-plus years researching the impact medical marijuana and hemp has on patients.

During my time at Howard University as Director of STEM Education in the College of Engineering, Architecture and Computer Sciences, where I was awarded over $10 million in federally funded grants, I had the opportunity to train MDs, PhDs and advanced undergraduates in biomedical research for infectious diseases in several global communities to address healthcare disparities. This was where my education, experience and skillset contributed greatly in my understanding of medical marijuana and hemp. I was familiar with the benefits cannabidiol (CBD) provided patients. This natural cannabinoid found in both the cannabis and hemp plants has aided people for some time. However, it’s only now that CBD is becoming more broadly known and accepted.

Today, we’re seeing more women turning to CBD products for self-care and more women-led CBD companies.

As a dispensary owner, it’s rewarding to see my patients—from children to senior citizens—improve based on this medicine. They’ve come to me with inflammation and anxiety, mood swings and hormonal imbalances, insomnia and excruciating pain, and within months they were new people.

Study: Marijuana Stores Associated With Increased Home Values

Medical and recreational marijuana dispensaries are associated with a significant increase in home value, according to a new study published by the journal Contemporary Economic Policy.


For the study, titled The effect of marijuana dispensary openings on housing prices, researchers evaluated “the effect of medical and recreational dispensary openings on housing prices in Denver, Colorado.” Using an “event study approach”, they found that “the introduction of a new dispensary within a half‐mile radius of a new home increases home prices by approximately 7.7% on average.”

The study notes that this effect “diminishes for homes further from new dispensaries but is consistent over time.” Researchers conclude by stating that “Our results provide important and timely empirical evidence on the socioeconomic impacts of marijuana legalization.”

More information on this study, conducted by researchers at Colorado State University, can be found by clicking here.

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10 Questions with Project CBD’s Martin A. Lee

Cofounder and director of Project CBD, an educational nonprofit that reports on cannabis science and therapeutics, Martin A. Lee is also the author of Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana—Medical, Recreational and Scientific (2012) and Acid Dreams: A Social History of LSD—the CIA, the Sixties and Beyond (1985).

How did you get interested in CBD?

I heard about it as a journalist attending and covering science conferences. I started writing about cannabis—the medical marijuana phenomenon—when I moved to California. I was drawn into it mainly from a civil rights/social justice perspective. Why are people still being busted if this is legal and for medical use?

It was a whole universe that opened up, which I had no idea about at all. So I started to focus on cannabis science and therapeutics, rather than just the raids by the police and that kind of thing, which was what initially drew me into writing about cannabis. It kind of changed course.

But what specifically sparked your interest in cannabidiol?

I would hear about CBD from scientists at these conferences. Steep Hill, the first lab that emerged to service the medical marijuana community, was able to identify both THC and CBD levels in the various cultivars. When these different CBD-rich strains popped up, that was it! What will this do? How will this affect people? Fred Gardner and I knew this was going to have a potentially major impact for not just patients, but for the whole medical marijuana phenomenon. Right away, we thought this could be a tremendous challenge to prohibition and the drug war, and that it would be very difficult for the DEA to respond to CBD and explain why it should be kept illegal.

U.S. Congress Approves Bill to Legalize Hemp, Sending it to President Trump

Both the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate has passed the 2018 Farm Bill which includes a provision to legalize hemp throughout the country.

The 2018 Farm Bill was passed by the House today by a vote of 369 to 47. The vote comes a day after the Senate approved the same bill 87 to 13. Now that it’s been passed by the full Congress it will be sent to President Trump, who has said he will sign it into law once given the opportunity.

The legislation is a wide-reaching bill that covers many facets of the farming industry. A provision in the measure, put forth by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnel, removes hemp from the federal list of controlled substances. This effectively legalizes it throughout the country, allowing farmers to grow it as they can any other agricultural commodity such as tomatoes.

Once the law takes effect hemp will become legal for the first time in decades.

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