Cannabis Culture Controversies: Vancouver Stores Ordered to Close, Marc Emery Under Fire

The good times in Vancouver are over. All unlicensed marijuana dispensaries, including two Cannabis Culture shops, must cease operation, as ordered by a British Columbia Supreme Court on Dec. 14. A total of 28 stores have to close by Jan. 31, or face shutdowns and possible arrests.

The ruling comes as provinces are providing licenses for cannabis businesses under Canada’s new legalization law, which went into effect Oct. 17.

“We’re just hoping people are going to move along and move into the more mainstream licensed retail business,” Vancouver Mayor Kennedy Stewart stated two days after the court decision. “I feel like once we have regular retail available here in the city, which will come very soon, then these other stores will just kind of fade away.”

So far, two recreational shops under the province’s new cannabis law are up and running: Evergreen Cannabis Society (2868 W. 4th Ave.) and City Cannabis Co. (610 Robson St.).

Unlike Cannabis Culture and other unlicensed stores, the new shops don’t allow onsite use. Cannabis Culture shops are famous for their dab bars.

Cannabis Culture owner Jodie …

Medical Marijuana Bill Signed Into Law by U.S. Virgin Islands Governor

U.S. Virgin Islands Governor Albert Bryan Jr. signed the Medical Cannabis Patient Care Act into law Tuesday.

The bill, sponsored by Senator Positive T.A. Nelson, received final approval from the Legislature on December 28.  The measure legalizes medical marijuana for those who receive a recommendation from a physician.

Comprehensive medical marijuana laws have been adopted in 32 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Seventeen other states have adopted medical marijuana laws that are ineffective because they are either unworkable or exceptionally restrictive. Idaho is the only state and American Samoa is the only U.S. territory without any form of medical marijuana law.

“We applaud Gov. Bryan and the Virgin Islands Legislature for enacting this sensible and compassionate legislation”, says Karen O’Keefe, director of state policies for the Marijuana Policy Project. “Medical marijuana is widely recognized as an effective treatment for a variety of debilitating conditions and symptoms. This new law offers the prospect of relief for countless patients, and it will do so for generations to come.”

O’Keefe continies; “Most U.S. states and territories have enacted effective medical cannabis laws, and those that have not are giving them increasingly stronger consideration. There is no reason why patients in 18 states and American Samoa should continue to be deprived of this medical treatment option that is now accessible to so many of their fellow Americans.”

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Medical Marijuana and Patients: It’s All About the Stigma

In these days of the Green Rush and the apparently inevitable legalization of cannabis, it’s important to bear one thing in mind: marijuana is a real medicine for many people. That’s made clear in The Medicalization of Marijuana: Legitimacy, Stigma and the Patient Experience.

This is not yet another rehash of published medical and scientific literature. It’s a fascinating look at how marijuana’s medical use is perceived by society and how those perceptions have evolved since the first medical program began after the passage of California’s Prop 215 in 1996.

The book starts by discussing the development of anti-marijuana propaganda, rooted in early 20th Century racist and classist anti-opium campaigns. U.S. marijuana policy went from “indifference to moral panic” in the first half of the 20th century thanks largely to Hearst newspapers’ “yellow journalism” and Harry J. Anslinger, who headed the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Cannabis may have been medicine and hemp was rope, but marijuana became the “killer weed.”

From killer weed to dropout drug to Just Say No and beyond, authors Michelle Newhart and William Dolphin trace the stereotypes used to stigmatize and marginalize people who consume marijuana. These stereotypes are so deeply ingrained that even people with serious illnesses who could definitely benefit from this alternative medicine, and who live in states where it’s legal, still resist trying it.

The Top 10 Most Popular Marijuana Strains to Start 2019

As we march into 2019, here’s a look at the most popular marijuana strains on the market.

Blue Dream.

Using data collected by Leafly, below is a list of the top 10 most popular marijuana strains for the start of 2018.

Anyone who has consumed cannabis for any amount of time will likely find Blue Dream’s placement on this list unsurprising (especially those in states with legal marijuana stores). This sativa-dominant strain has remained one of the most popular for years, and is a mainstay in almost all marijuana stores and dispensaries. The popularity of this strain – a cross between the indica-dominant Blueberry strain and the sativa-dominant Haze strain – is well earned, with it’s smooth, uplifting high, and it’s delicious blueberry-tinged taste and smell.

Sour Diesel is another long-term mainstay of the cannabis world. With Super Skunk and Chemdawg lineage, this strain is best known for its strong diesel-like smell, and potent, energetic high.

This hybrid – a cross between OG Kush and Durban Poison – has bursted onto the scene in recent years. With it’s excellent taste and smell, and its powerful high, this relative newcomer has quickly become more popular than legendary strains like OG Kush and White Widow.

Despite an unfortunate name Green Crack is a growingly popular and respected strain. It has an extremely energetic high and powerful body buzz, and its sweet, ofttimes citrusy flavor and smell make it stand out from the crowd.

OG Kush is known the world around. The classic combo of Hindu Kush and Chemdawg has an earthy and piney flavor, and has one of the most sought after marijuana strains for years.

As far as indica-dominant strains go, Granddaddy Purple is one of the most vaunted. An excellent mix of Big Bud and Purple Urkle, this strain has a sweet, often berry-like flavor. Most …

Legislation Filed in Virginia to Legalize Marijuana

A legislative proposal that would legalize marijuana for those 21 and older, while decriminalizing it for those under 21, has been filed in Virginia’s House of Representatives.

House Bill 2371 was filed by Delegate Steve Heretick (D) along with four cosponsors. The measure would remove all criminal penalties for the personal possession of marijuana for those 21 and older, while legalizing marijuana retail outlets. These outlets would be taxed at 9.7% in addition to the state’s current sales tax. Around 2/3rds of the tax revenue would go to the general fund, with the remainder going to public education.

According to the bill’s official summary, it “also decriminalizes marijuana possession for persons under 21 years of age and provides a civil penalty of no more than $50 for a first violation, $100 for a second violation, and $250 for a third or subsequent violation.”

A separate but similar legalization measure, House Bill 2373, was also filed recently in the Virginia House of Representatives. Both House Bill 2373 and House Bill 2371 have been assigned to the Committee for Courts of Justice Subcommittee #1.

For the full text of House Bill 2371, click here – for House Bill 2373, click here.

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U.S. Attorney General Nominee Says He Would Respect State Marijuana Laws

U.S. attorney general nominee William Barr said during a Senate confirmation hearing Tuesday that he would not target marijuana businesses that are operating in compliance with state laws that allow them, whether for medical or recreational purposes.

William Barr.

If confirmed, Barr said his “approach to this would be not to upset settled expectations and the reliant interests that have arisen as a result of the Cole memorandum.” He later added that he “is not going to go after companies that have relied on the Cole memorandum.”

The Cole memorandum was issued in 2013 by then-Deputy Attorney General James M. Cole and provided marijuana enforcement guidance to U.S. attorneys. It stated that the Justice Department would not enforce federal marijuana prohibition laws in states that have legalized marijuana for adult or medical use as long as certain federal priorities are addressed, such as preventing interstate trafficking and sales to minors.

Barr also expressed frustration with the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws, calling the current situation “untenable.”

“We are pleased to hear Mr. Barr intends to respect state marijuana laws if he is confirmed as our next attorney general”, says Steve Hawkins, executive director of the Marijuana Policy Project. “His reference to the Cole memo suggests that he will maintain the policy of non-interference that has existed since August 2013. This is not only a sensible decision, but is one supported by a vast majority of Americans.”

Hawkins continues; “We are also sympathetic to Mr. Barr’s call for a more consistent federal approach, provided it is one that respects the will of the people. To that end, it is time for Congress to pass a law that either removes marijuana from the federal Controlled Substances Act or formally exempts state-legal cannabis activity from its provisions.”

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Federal Legislation Introduced To Protect State-Level Marijuana Legalization Laws

Representative Lou Correa (D-CA) has introduced House Resolution 493: The Sensible Enforcement Of Cannabis Act, which would codify the protections that were outlined in the now-rescinded Cole Memo.

As reported by NORML, The Sensible Enforcement Of Cannabis Act essentially would give peace of mind to lawmakers, regulators, 149,000+ workers, and the millions of patients and consumers who are dependent on the normalization of lawful marijuana markets. The most essential component in creating a stable business environment to meet consumer demand is certainty, and that is what states and businesses would have with Congressman Correa’s legislation to protect state-lawful programs from potential rouge US Attorneys under a Department of Justice likely to be led by known drug warrior William Barr.

To date, these statewide regulatory programs are operating largely as voters and politicians intended. The enactment of these policies have not negatively impacted workplace safetycrime ratestraffic safety, or youth use patterns. They have stimulated economic development and created hundreds of millions of dollars in new tax revenue.

Tax revenues from states like Colorado, Oregon, and Washington now exceed initial projections. Further, numerous studies have identified an association between cannabis access and lower rates of opioid use, abusehospitalizations, and mortality.

It is critical that federal officials protect our progress. Send a message in support of HR 493 now!

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Congressional Cannabis Caucus Challenges Trump Administration

On Feb. 16, 2017, a bi-partisan group of House members officially launched the Congressional Cannabis Caucus, making it the first marijuana-focused congressional member organization. There are nearly 300 issue-focused caucuses.

At the press conference announcing the new group, the four initial members—Democrats Earl Blumenauer (OR) and Jared Polis (CO) and Republicans Dana Rohrabacher (CA) and Don Young (AK) and suggested that they were ready to put up a fight should the Department of Justice ramp up enforcement of federal prohibition.

“If we have to, we’ll bump heads with the attorney general,” said Young, referring to embattled AG Jeff Sessions, who has since left the Cabinet.

Rohrabacher stressed that recreational cannabis legalization should get serious attention from Congress. So far, it’s only approved protections for state medical marijuana programs in the form of an appropriations rider, commonly known as the Rohrabacher-Farr amendment. Blumenauer stepped in as the co-sponsor when Sam Farr retired in January 2017.

Update: With Rohrabacher recently losing his re-election and Polis being elected governor of Colorado, two new members joined the Caucus on Jan. 9: Barbara Lee (D-CA) and …

Legislation to Legalize Personal Marijuana Cultivation Filed in Washington’s House and Senate

Companion bills that would legalize the personal cultivation of marijuana for those 21 and older has been filed in Washington State’s House of Representatives and Senate.

The legislation, which has bipartisan support in both chambers of the legislature, would allow anyone 21 and older to grow up to six marijuana plants at a private residence, for personal use. If three or more individuals 21+ are living in the same residence they could grow up to, but not more than (regardless of the number of residents), fifteen plants.

Despite the current marijuana possession limit in the state being one ounce, the bills would allow those growing marijuana to possess over this amount if their harvest is larger.

Currently there are 10 states in the U.S. where marijuana has been legalized. However, Washington is the only one of these states where marijuana can’t be grown for personal use.

For the full text of Senate Bill 5155 and House Bill 1131, click here.

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Vermont Supreme Court Rules Burnt Marijuana Smell Not Probably Cause to Search Vehicle

In a ruling that sets immediate precedent across Vermont, the state’s supreme court has decided that the smell of burnt marijuana is not enough to justify law enforcement obtaining a warrant to search a vehicle.

The court ruled that the odor of burnt marijuana emanating from a vehicle is not strong enough evidence or sufficient probable cause to conduct legally search said vehicle. The ruling comes roughly six months after the possession and personal cultivation became legal in the state.

“The seizure, aimed at immobilizing the plaintiff’s vehicle while the officer sought a search warrant, was essentially based solely on the trooper’s initial detection of the faint odor of burnt marijuana, which did not, in and of itself, create fair probability that marijuana would be found in the vehicle”, states the ruling.

The case, Zullo v. Vermont, effectively overturned a lower court decision.

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MedMen Parcels Out Real Estate Properties, Defends Itself from Suit

One of the country’s largest dispensary operators, MedMen Enterprises Inc., announced Jan. 7 that Treehouse Real Estate Investment Trust had completed its first round of capital raising with $133 million, part of which will be used to purchase properties from MedMen in what’s known as a sale-leaseback transaction.

Such arrangements have become a way for companies to raise cash by selling their real estate holdings to another entity and then paying rent. For MedMen, it appears to be a quicker way to generate capital for additional growth.

MedMen (CSE: MMEN) (OTCMKTS: MMNFF) did not disclose how much of the first round from Treehouse will go toward the sale-leaseback for its properties. Both companies are based in the Los Angeles area. Treehouse was formed as a venture between MedMen and Stable Road Capital, an investment firm in real estate and cannabis businesses that’s worked with MedMen on other transactions.

MedMen currently operates 16 stores and three cultivation and manufacturing facilities with plans to expand to 76 stores and 16 cultivation and manufacturing facilities in 12 states.

Treehouse, which is governed by an independent board, holds a management contract with MedMen to oversee day-to-day operations at its facilities. At some point, Treehouse will go public, but details have yet to be set. The firm raised the $133 million through a private 144a offering to institutional buyers and accredited investors based in the U.S.

Review: New ‘Cannabis’ Grow Book from Cultivation Expert Danny Danko

Author of “Cannabis: A Beginner’s Guide to Growing Marijuana” aznd High Times senior cultivation editor Danny Danko

One of the most respected writers in the cannabis media, Danny Danko has been covering cultivation and providing tips for growers in High Times for nearly two decades. One of his “mentors,” Jorge Cervantes, writes in the forward to Cannabis: A Beginner’s Guide to Growing Marijuana, “Danny Danko was my only choice to assume my question-and-answer column for High Times.”

What Cervantes is referring to is his advice column in High Times, “Jorge’s Rx.” When Cervantes decided to move on, Danko was the natural candidate to take over the popular section in the magazine (renamed “Dear Danko”), which had previously been written by Ed Rosenthal as “As Ed.” Considering that High Times has long been the favorite journal of canna-growers, this was quite an honor.

Prior to this book, Danko wrote The Official High Times Field Guide to Marijuana Strains in 2011. Eight years later, his follow-up covers much different territory. It’s a basic how-to-grow primer. While Cervantes and Rosenthal have written at length (in articles and books) about cannabis cultivation, Danko’s 140-page book boils it all down in an easy-to-understand way, with illustrations throughout rather than photos.

Though knowledgeable about all aspects of pot culture and cannabis law reform, Danko stays focused and doesn’t wander from the subject at hand. Chapters cover grow-room setup, strains and genetics, germination, sexing, mother plants, cloning, vegetative growth, flowering, harvesting, pests and mold, and making concentrates, edibles, tinctures and topicals.

Legislation to Legalize Medical Marijuana Filed in South Carolina

Legislation to legalize medical marijuana has been filed in South Carolina’s House of Representatives.

House Bill 3272 was filed by Representatives Todd Rutherford (D) and Gilda Cobb-Hunter (D), and has been referred to the House Judiciary Committee. The measure would legalize the medical use and possession of marijuana by those with a qualifying medical condition who receive a recommendation from a physician. This includes legalizing a system of licensed dispensaries.

Under the proposed law, patients or their caregiver would be allowed to possess up to two ounces of marijuana, and could grow up to six plants (three of which can be mature).

The law defines “debilitating medical condition” as:

(a)    cancer, glaucoma, positive status for human immunodeficiency virus, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or treatment for these conditions;

(b)    a chronic or debilitating disease or medical condition, or treatment of that disease or medical condition, that results in one or more of the following symptoms, and for which, in the professional opinion of that patient’s physician, the use of medical marijuana would alleviate one or more of the symptoms:

(i)     cachexia;

(ii)    severe pain;

(iii)    severe nausea;

(iv)    seizures, including those that are characteristic of epilepsy; or

(v)    persistent muscle spasms, including those characteristic of multiple sclerosis; and

(c)    another disease or medical condition, or treatment of that disease or medical condition, determined by the department to be a debilitating medical condition pursuant to department regulation or department approval of a petition submitted by a patient or a patient’s physician.

For the full text of the proposal, click here.

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Enough Signatures Submitting in Denver to Put Magic Mushrooms Initiative on November Ballot

Proponents of an initiative to decriminalize the possession and use of magic mushrooms in Denver have submitted enough signatures to put the measure to a vote of the people.

The group Decriminalize Denver submitted over 8,000  signatures today for their initiative, well more than the 4,726 required to make the November general election ballot. However, the Denver Election Division must now verify that enough of the 8,000+ signatures are valid (from registered Denver voters) before the measure can be officially placed on the ballot; they have 25 days to do so.

The proposal would make psilocybin mushrooms (A.K.A “magic mushrooms” – psilocybin is the psychoactive ingredient found within them) the lowest law enforcement priority for those 21 and older, similar to what Seattle did for cannabis in 2009 (three years prior to cannabis being legalized). More importantly, the initiative would prohibit the city – including law enforcement – from using any funds to impose penalties on those who use and possess personal amounts of psilocybin.

Below is the official ballot title for the Denver Psilocybin Initiative:

Shall the voters of the City and County of Denver adopt an ordinance to the Denver Revised Municipal Code that would make the personal use and personal possession of psilocybin mushrooms by persons twenty-one (21) years of age and older the city’s lowest law-enforcement priority, prohibit the city from spending resources to impose criminal penalties for the personal use and possession of psilocybin mushrooms by persons twenty-one (21) years of age and older, and establish the psilocybin mushroom policy review panel to assess and report on the effects of the ordinance?


For the full text of the initiative, click here.

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Study: CBD May Enhance Treatment Efficiacy in Glioblastoma Multiforme (Brain Tumor)

CBD may “act as an adjunct to enhance treatment efficacy” in glioblastoma multiforme, which is “the most common and aggressive form of primary malignant brain tumor in adults”, according to a study published by the journal Translational Oncology.

“Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with poor prognosis”, states the study’s abstract. “Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key-mediators for cellular communication through transfer of proteins and genetic material. Cancers, such as GBM, use EV release for drug-efflux, pro-oncogenic signaling, invasion and immunosuppression; thus the modulation of EV release and cargo is of considerable clinical relevance.”

As EV-inhibitors have been shown to increase sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy, “and we recently showed that cannabidiol (CBD) is such an EV-modulator”, researchers “investigated whether CBD affects EV profile in GBM cells in the presence and absence of temozolomide (TMZ).” Compared to controls, “CBD-treated cells released EVs containing lower levels of pro-oncogenic miR21 and increased levels of anti-oncogenic miR126; these effects were greater than with TMZ alone. In addition, prohibitin (PHB), a multifunctional protein with mitochondrial protective properties and chemoresistant functions, was reduced in GBM cells following 1 h CBD treatment.”

Researchers conclude by stating that “This data suggests that CBD may, via modulation of EVs and PHB, act as an adjunct to enhance treatment efficacy in GBM, supporting evidence for efficacy of cannabinoids in GBM.”

For the full text of this study, click here.

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Washington State Governor to Pardon Marijuana Convictions, to Effect Around 3,500 People

Washington State Governor Jay Inslee announced today that he plans to allow for the pardon of thousands of people convicted of marijuana possession charges.

Governor Inslee made the announcement at a cannabis industry summit in SeaTac, saying that he was creating an expedited process that would allow about 3,500 people to apply for and receive a pardon without having to hire a lawyer or go to court.

“We have people who have this burden on their shoulders from a simple, one-time marijuana possession from maybe 20 years ago, and that’s impeding the ability of people to live their lives,” Inslee said in an interview. “It can damage their ability to get financing for a home; it can damage their ability to get financing for colleges, even simple things like going on a field trip with your kids.

“We should not be punishing people for something that is no longer illegal,” he said.

Several states allow for expunging or sealing marijuana convictions, though often the process is complex and difficult to navigate.

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Review: AccuVape’s Dragon X Portable Vaporizer

For those who choose not to ignite cannabis, vaping is the way to go. While vape pens are best for oil (loaded into cartridges), portable models that fit neatly in your palm are often the best method to consume flower.

That’s where AccuVape’s Dragon X comes in. It truly is handy and compact. Larger than a Zippo lighter and smaller than a flask, its sleek black design and overall utility make for a great addition to any cannasseur’s collection.

After charging, lift the swivel top and load freshly ground flower into the bowl. Close it and turn the device on by holding the power button for two seconds. It will start as red and then turn blue. The convection heating has begun.

Dragon X from AccuVape costs $98.95

Here’s where it gets a little tricky. The four small lights on the side indicate power status as well as different temperatures. Click the power button two times to adjust the temps (they range between 344°F and 428°F). It’s best not to heat at the high end or you’ll have brown flower before your know it. The device will turn off automatically to save battery; however, it does get hot to the touch.

Study: Marijuana Use Associated With Lower BMI, Smaller Waist to Hip Ratio, and Better Cholesterol Levels

Long-term marijuana use is associated with lower BMI (body mass index) and cardiometabolic risk factors, according to a new study published by the journal Psychosomatic Medicine, and epublished by the National Institute of Health.


The study, titled Associations between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors: A longitudinal study of men, “tested longitudinal associations between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors that underlie the development of cardiovascular diseases.”

Participants were men from the youngest cohort of the Pittsburgh Youth Study who were followed prospectively from approximately age 7 to 32. Frequency of cannabis use was assessed yearly from ~ages 12-20 and again at ~ages 26, 29, and 32. The following cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed during a laboratory visit at age ~32: “BMI, WHR, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, interleukin 6, and C-reactive protein.”

Researchers found that “Greater cannabis exposure was associated with relatively lower BMI, smaller WHR, better HDL and LDL cholesterol, lower triglycerides, lower fasting glucose and HOMA-IR, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fewer metabolic syndrome criteria.”

With exception of BMI, “cannabis users’ mean levels on cardiometabolic risk factors were generally below clinical cutoffs for high risk. Most associations between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors remained after adjusting for tobacco use, childhood SES, and childhood health.”

However, after adjusting for adult BMI, “these associations were no longer apparent, and mediation tests suggested that cannabis users’ relatively lower BMI might explain their lower levels of risk on other cardiometabolic risk factors.”

Researchers conclude; “Cannabis use is associated with lower BMI, and lower BMI is related to lower levels of risk on other cardiometabolic risk factors.”

For more info on this study, click here.

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Hawaiians Hoping to Legalize Recreational Cannabis in 2019

Maui Wowie strain (photo courtesy of The Clinic)

Hawaii’s place in the cannabis pantheon is legendary. Anyone 50 or older who was privileged enough to smoke the island’s famous kine or pakalolo at their peak often still describes it as amongst the best herb they’ve ever smoked.

During the late ’70s, High Times routinely listed strains such as the infamous Maui Wowie, Puna Budder and Kauai Electric Blue for more $2,000 a pound at the same time commercial Mexican or Colombian was fetching just $300. There were four reasons for this: seeds, climate, passion and gardening acumen. Hippies traveling the hashish trail brought many varieties of Middle Eastern, Indian and Nepali cannabis seeds to the Hawaiian islands.

Returning Vietnam vets, many of whom had first been exposed to cannabis in Southeast Asia, increasingly settled in Hawaii. Along with seeds of the fabled Laotian Red and Chocolate Thai, the vets brought an understanding of jungle survival courtesy of Uncle Sam. The hippies, for their part, provided access to worldwide markets.

By the late ’70s, Hawaiian marijuana enjoyed its rightful place in the sun. The hippest dealers in New York and Los Angeles received $500 an ounce for precious Hawaiian flower. One OG grower, Papaya John, cleared $8,000 a pound for his prized product in the mid-’80s.

Study: Cannabis Terpenoids “Exert Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities in Vitro and in Vivo”

Terpenoids derived from cannabis “exert anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in vitro and in vivo”, according to a new study published by the National Institute of Health.

“Cannabinoids are well known to have anti-inflammatory effects in mammalians; however, the Cannabis plant also contains other compounds such as terpenoids, whose biological effects have not yet been characterized”, states the abstract of the study, which was conducted by researchers at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.  With this in mind, the aim of this study “was to compare the anti-inflammatory properties of terpenoids with those of cannabidiol (CBD).”

For the study “Essential oils prepared from three monoecious nonpsychoactive chemotypes of Cannabis were analyzed for their terpenoid content and subsequently studied pharmacologically for their anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo.”

In vitro, “the three essential oils rich in terpenoids partly inhibited reactive oxygen intermediate and nitric oxide radical (NO) production in RAW 264.7 stimulated macrophages.” The three terpenoid-rich oils “exerted moderate anti-inflammatory activities in an in vivo anti-inflammatory model without affecting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) serum levels.”

In their conclusion, researchers state that “The different Cannabis chemotypes showed distinct compositions of terpenoids. The terpenoid-rich essential oils exert anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in vitro and in vivo, which vary according to their composition.”

Despite the apparent effectiveness of terpenoids, “None of the essential oils was as effective as purified CBD. In contrast to CBD that exerts prolonged immunosuppression and might be used in chronic inflammation, the terpenoids showed only a transient immunosuppression and might thus be used to relieve acute inflammation.”

For more information on this study, click here.

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Freedom Leaf’s First-Quarter 2018 Events Calendar


5-6: Maui Cannabis Conference, Royal Lahaina Resort, Lahaina, Maui, HI

10: CannaGather CT, Shish Kebab House, West Hartford, CT

10: Lift & Co. Cannabis Business Conference & Expo, Vancouver Convention Centre, Vancouver, BC

11: Colorado Winter Hemp Summit, Block One Events, Fort Collins, CO

12: Willie: Life & Songs of an American Outlaw, Bridgestone Arena, Nashville, TN; featuring Willie Nelson, Kris Kristofferson, Sheryl Crow, Norah Jones, Jimmy Buffett, Chris Stapleton, Vince Gill, Alison Krauss, Eric Church, Emmylou Harris, George Strait, Lukas Nelson & many more

Freedom Leaf’s 2018 MJBizCon Las Vegas Photo Gallery

12: Errl Cup, Tempe, AZ

13: NYC Cannabis Film Fest, House of Yes, Brooklyn, NY

14-16: Cannabis Capital Conference, Eden Roc, Miami Beach, FL

15-16: Caribbean U.S. Hemp Conference & Expo, Embassy Suites by Hilton, Dorado, Puerto Rico

22: CannaGather NYC, Galvanize, New York, NY

23-24: Cannabis Collaborative Conference, Portland Expo Center, Portland, ME

26-27: INDO Expo, Denver Mart, Denver, CA

31-February 2: CannaCon, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA


7-8: International Cannabis

The Top 10 Cannabis Studies of 2018

It’s that time again – here is our sixth annual Top Cannabis Studies of the Year list. 

Continuing the trend of the past several years, 2018 provided us with a massive amount of peer-reviewed research demonstrating the wide-ranging benefits of cannabis and the liberation of laws surrounding it. With that in mind, this year was as big a challenge as ever to narrow these studies down to the top 10, but after much thought and debate that’s what we’ve done!

Below is our list of the 10 most important cannabis studies of the year (in no particular order):


Study: Medical Cannabis Legalization Associated with Reduced Violent Crimes in States Bordering Mexico

Study: Cannabinoid Receptors a Promising Target for the Treatment of Suicidal Behavior

Study: Cannabinoids May Inhibit Tumor Growth in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Study: CBD Reduces Cocaine Intake

Study: Marijuana Legalization Associated With Reduction in Crime, Drug and Alcohol Use

Study: Marijuana Use Associated With Reduced Mortality Following Orthopedic Surgery

Study: Legalizing Medical Marijuana Associated with a 33.7% Reduction in Workplace Fatalities Among Those Aged 25 to 44

Study: Long-Term Marijuana Use Doesn’t Increase Risk for Adverse Lung Function, May Reduce Emphysema Risk

Study: CBD Reduces Airway Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Allergic Asthma.

Study: Cannabis May Help Control Hospital and Community-Acquired MRSA

Honorable mentions:


Study: Marijuana Crackdowns Are a Form of Structural Violence, Have Negative Effects on Health, Social and Economic Well-Being

New Study Finds Cannabis Use Does Not Harm Human Fertility

Study: Cannabis Seeds and Sprouts Exert Beneficial Effects on Human Cells

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Four Recreational Cannabis Stores Open in Massachusetts

Update: Two years after Massachusetts voters approved Question 4 legalizing the recreational use and sale of marijuana, two stores opened on Nov. 20Cultivate in Leicester and New England Treatment Access (NETA) in Northampton. At Cultivate, pot patrons paid from $19 to $420 for flower products.

In Northampton, Mayor David Narcewicz was first on line at NETA; he purchased an infused chocolate bar for $20. “It’s just a historic moment for the commonwealth and for the city,” he crowed. “I’m glad to be a part of it.”

Update: Two more stores have opened since then: Alternative Therapies Group (ATG) in Salem and Veralife in Wareham.

Back in June, the Massachusetts’ Cannabis Control Commission (CCC), tasked by the legislature and governor to draft and implement the establishment of a retail cannabis industry, publicly indicated that their self-directed date to open non-medical cannabis retail outlets, July 1, would not be realized.

The Commission’s intent was to avoid mistake-laden employee background checks, consumer chaos and confusion and product inventory problems that occurred in the six previous states that created commercial cannabis markets (Colorado, Washington, …

Oregon Approves Medical Marijuana Deliveries, Increases Purchase Limits

The Oregon Liquor Control Commission has approved several changes to the state’s medical marijuana program.

The commission, which oversees Oregon’s medical marijuana law, has given approval to a change in the state’s law that allows the medicine to be delivered to patients or their caregiver. The commission also passed an increase in the amount of medical marijuana a patient can purchase to eight ounces in a single day and up to 32 ounces in a single month.

In addition, the commission voted to allow wholesale license holders to provide retailers with samples.

The change in law allowing medical marijuana to be delivered unfortunately doesn’t apply to recreational marijuana.

Oregon legalized medical marijuana in 1998 through the initiative process, with 54% voting in favor. In 2014, the state legalized marijuana for all purposes.

The new  medical marijuana rules go into effect on December 29, 2019.

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